Hydrogen Water (H2) Research

Over 600 peer-reviewed articles suggest that molecular hydrogen (H2) offers therapeutic potential or benefit in over 150 disease models and health conditions positively impacting essentially every organ of the body. The articles below are just a sampling and are organized by organ topic, disease, or mechanism of action. Each article listed can be found online.

Just getting started? Overwhelmed but curious? 
We recommend reviewing this excellent peer-reviewed summary of the research: 
Comprehensive Review on Benefits of Diatomic Hydrogen used in Water >>> US National Library of Medicine


KAWASAKI, H., GUAN, J. J. & TAMAMA, K. (2010). Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 397, 608-613.

FUJITA, R., TANAKA, Y., SAIHARA, Y., YAMAKITA, M., ANDO, D. & KOYAMA, K. (2011). Effect of molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on disuse muscle atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 30, 195-201

HANAOKA, T., KAMIMURA, N., YOKOTA, T., TAKAI, S. & OHTA, S. (2011). Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research 1, 18.

ITOH, T., HAMADA, N., TERAZAWA, R., ITO, M., OHNO, K., ICHIHARA, M. & NOZAWA, Y. (2011). Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 411, 143-9.

KUBOTA, M., SHIMMURA, S., KUBOTA, S., MIYASHITA, H., KATO, N., NODA, K., OZAWA, Y., USUI, T., ISHIDA, S., UMEZAWA, K., KURIHARA, T. & TSUBOTA, K. (2011). Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 427-33.

LEKIC, T., MANAENKO, A., ROLLAND, W., FATHALI, N., PETERSON, M., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2011). Protective effect of hydrogen gas therapy after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111, 237-41. TAKEUCHI, S., WADA, K., NAGATANI, K., OSADA, H., OTANI, N. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2012). Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Internal Medicine 51, 1309-13.

XU, Z., ZHOU, J., CAI, J., ZHU, Z., SUN, X. & JIANG, C. (2012). Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond) 9, 2.

CAI, W. W., ZHANG, M. H., YU, Y. S. & CAI, J. H. (2013). Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem 373, 1-9.

GUO, J. D., LI, L., SHI, Y. M., WANG, H. D. & HOU, S. X. (2013). Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol 168, 1412-20.

SUN, Y., SHUANG, F., CHEN, D. M. & ZHOU, R. B. (2013). Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int24, 969-78.


T. KASHIWAGI, T. H., S. KABAYAMA, M. TAKAKI, K. TERUYA, Y. KATAKURA, K. OTUBO, S. MORISAWA, S. SHIRAHATA. (2005). Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Neuronal Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water. Animal Cell Technology Meets Genomics 2, 257-260.

NAKAO, A., KACZOROWSKI, D. J., ZUCKERBRAUN, B. S., LEI, J., FALEO, G., DEGUCHI, K., MCCURRY, K. R., BILLIAR, T. R. & KANNO, S. (2008). Galantamine and carbon monoxide protect brain microvascular endothelial cells by heme oxygenase-1 induction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 367, 674-9.

SATO, Y., KAJIYAMA, S., AMANO, A., KONDO, Y., SASAKI, T., HANDA, S., TAKAHASHI, R., FUKUI, M., HASEGAWA, G., NAKAMURA, N., FUJINAWA, H., MORI, T., OHTA, M., OBAYASHI, H., MARUYAMA, N. & ISHIGAMI, A. (2008). Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375, 346-350.

FU, Y., ITO, M., FUJITA, Y., ITO, M., ICHIHARA, M., MASUDA, A., SUZUKI, Y., MAESAWA, S., KAJITA, Y., HIRAYAMA, M., OHSAWA, I., OHTA, S. & OHNO, K. (2009). Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters 453, 81–85.

FUJITA, K., SEIKE, T., YUTSUDO, N., OHNO, M., YAMADA, H., YAMAGUCHI, H., SAKUMI, K., YAMAKAWA, Y., KIDO, M. A., TAKAKI, A., KATAFUCHI, T., TANAKA, Y., NAKABEPPU, Y. & NODA, M. (2009). Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS One 4, e7247.

KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K., KOGA, H. & YOKOI, I. (2009). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: alpha P-31-NMR study. Neuroscience Research 65, S124-S124.

NAGATA, K., NAKASHIMA-KAMIMURA, N., MIKAMI, T., OHSAWA, I. & OHTA, S. (2009). Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 501-508.

BARI, F., OLAH, O., NEMETH, I., HUGYECZ, M. & DOMOKI, F. (2010). Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Protects Cerebrovascular Reactivity Against Moderate but Not Severe Perinatal Hypoxic Injury in Newborn Piglets. Stroke 41, E323-E323.

DOMOKI, F., OLAH, O., ZIMMERMANN, A., NEMETH, I., TOTH-SZUKI, V., HUGYECZ, M., TEMESVARI, P. & BART, F. (2010). Hydrogen is Neuroprotective and Preserves Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs. Pediatric Research 68, 387-392.

GU, Y., HUANG, C. S., INOUE, T., YAMASHITA, T., ISHIDA, T., KANG, K. M. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 46, 269-276.



MR TAKAAKI KOMATSU, S. K., AKIRA HAYASHIDA, HIROFUMA NOGAMI, DR KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMITI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, PROF SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2001). Suppressive Effect of Electrolyzed-Reduced Water on the Growth of Cancer Cells and Microorganisms. Animal Cell Technology: From Target to Market 1, 220-223.

S. SHIRAHATA, S. K., K. KUSUMOTO, M. GOTOH, K. TERUYA, K. OTSUBO, J. S. MORISAWA, H. HAYASHI, K. KATAKURA. (2002). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Which Can Scavenge Active Oxygen Species Supresses Cell Growth and Regulates Gene Expression of Animal Cells. New Developments and New Applications in Animal Cell Technology, 93-96.

KOMATSU, T., KATAKURA, Y., TERUYA, K., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., & & SHIRAHATA, S. (2003). Electrolyzed reduced water induces differentiation in K-562 human leukemia cells. Animal cell technology: Basic & applied aspects, 387-391.

JUN, Y., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of invasion of cancer cells and angiogenesis by electrolyzed reduced water. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.

LEE, K.-J. (2004). Anticancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water. J Int Soc Life Inf Sci 22, 302-305.

NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water/platinum nanocolloids. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.

NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OSADA, K., HAMASAKI, T., KASHIWAGI, T., KOMATSU, T., LI, Y., YE, J., ICHIKAWA, A., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., XU, Q. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2005). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation. Cytotechnology 47, 97-105.

RYUHEI NISHIKAWA, F. O. A. K. T., YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMICHI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, QIANGHUA XU, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2006). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water containing platinum nanoparticles. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 14.

SAITOH, Y., OKAYASU, H., XIAO, L., HARATA, Y. & MIWA, N. (2008). Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition Over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition on currently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression. Oncology Research 17, 247-255.

YE, J., LI, Y., HAMASAKI, T., NAKAMICHI, N., KOMATSU, T., KASHIWAGI, T., TERUYA, K., NISHIKAWA, R., KAWAHARA, T., OSADA, K., TOH, K., ABE, M., TIAN, H., KABAYAMA, S., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., KATAKURA, Y. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2008). Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31, 19-26.

SAITOH, Y., YOSHIMURA, Y., NAKANO, K. & MIWA, N. (2009). Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells. Exp Oncol 31, 156-62.

H2 as an Antioxidant:


SHIRAHATA, S., KABAYAMA, S., NAKANO, M., MIURA, T., KUSUMOTO, K., GOTOH, M., HAYASHI, H., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & KATAKURA, Y. (1997). Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 234, 269-274.

HANAOKA, K., SUN, D. X., LAWRENCE, R., KAMITANI, Y. & FERNANDES, G. (2004). The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical chemistry 107, 71-82.

HIRAOKA, A., TAKEMOTO, M., SUZUKI, T., SHINOHARA, A., CHIBA, M., SHIRAO, M. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2004). Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of "active hydrogen " . Journal of Health Science 50, 456-465.

PARK, E. J. (2005). Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 48, 155-160.

YANAGIHARA, T., ARAI, K., MIYAMAE, K., SATO, B., SHUDO, T., YAMADA, M. & AOYAMA, M. (2005). Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69, 1985-7.

LEE, M. Y., KIM, Y. K., RYOO, K. K., LEE, Y. B. & PARK, E. J. (2006). Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 135, 133-44.

OHSAWA, I., ISHIKAWA, M., TAKAHASHI, K., WATANABE, M., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., KATSURA, K., KATAYAMA, Y., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 13, 688-694.

ANXU YAN, H. T., TAKEKI HAMASAKI, MASUMI ABE, NOBORU NAKAMICHI, KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2010). electrolyzed reduced water prolongs Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 16, 289-293.

HIRAOKA, A., INABA, H., SUZUKI, E., KASAI, K., SUZUKI, H., SHINOHARA, A., SHIRAO, M., KUBO, K. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2010). In Vitro Physicochemical Properties of Neutral Aqueous Solution Systems (Water Products as Drinks) Containing Hydrogen Gas, 2-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, and Platinum Nanocolloid as Additives. Journal of Health Science 56, 167-174.

YAN, H. X., TIAN, H. Z., KINJO, T., HAMASAKI, T., TOMIMATSU, K., NAKAMICHI, N., TERUYA, K., KABAYAMA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2010). Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 74, 2011-2015.

BERJAK, P., SERSHEN, VARGHESE, B. & PAMMENTER, N. W. (2011). Cathodic amelioration of the adverse effects of oxidative stress accompanying procedures necessary for cryopreservation of embryonic axes of recalcitrant-seeded species. Seed Science Research 21, 187-203