Alkaline Water - the Basics and the Benefits

Can a simple thing like drinking water actually make you healthier? Alkalized water is said to improve your health, boost your immune system, help your body absorb nutrients more quickly and fight aging among other benefits with its antioxidant-rich, H2 water and ORP properties. Find out more on the list of topics below;

Acid or Alkaline?

  1. So what is alkaline water?
  2. What is Kangen™ water and how does it work?
  3. How can I get alkaline drinking water?
  4. The Health Benefits of Alkaline Water
  5. What are some other Benefits of Alkaline Water
  6. What is Ionized Water
  7. What is UltraWater?
  8. Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet


We are talking about lifestyle-induced over-acidification in our bodies. Acid is a corrosive, life defeating substance. Imagine what can happen to your digestive system, joints and other soft tissues, if the acid load gets out of balance. Over acidity – acidosis if extreme – ultimately weakens all body systems, giving rise to an internal environment that is conducive to disease. Most doctors do not diagnose or treat over acidity, rather, they treat its symptoms. If you have acid-reflux the majority of doctors give you a prescription; they do not treat the root cause of systemic over-acidity. Yet ironically, there is not a single doctor who will tell you being over-acidic is a good idea.

So what is alkaline water?

Alkaline water is the opposite of acidic water or more accurately it is water above 7 on the pH scale. Tap water across Australia ranges in varying pH dependent on location, season, rainfall etc, in Sydney 2016 Sydney Water treated tap water test results ranged from a ph of 5.4 to 8.0. The pH scale ranges from 1 (highly acidic) to 14 (highly alkaline) with 7 in the middle being neutral. See Sydney Water test results. See more on the science of Purple Water.


What is Kangen™ water and how does it work?

Kangen™ Water is simply alkaline water – like all water ionizers, the Kangen Water machine uses electromagnetism to separate the minerals in tap water from the bicarbonate. Kangen is no different than Kleenex and is simply a brand name commonly recongnised in the industry. During the ionization process, the alkaline minerals are drawn towards the negatively charged plates. AlkaViva, Kangen and AlkaWay all use the same principles in their machines. Why are Kangen ionizers so expensive - see this article


How can I get alkaline drinking water?

Machines called water ionizers make water alkaline, they are the best method of creating alkaline water but they are also the most expensive.

Electric water ionizers offer the best filtering and the electrolysis chamber does not add anything to the water which means the water purity is the best. 

Non-electric water ionzers are more common and can be a more cost effective purchase. If you are on a budget these are your best option but they do add alkalizing minerals to the water.

Bottled mineral water tends to be slightly alkaline, some alkaline bottled water uses bicarbonate of soda which is not recommended for regular use. Some manufacturers may state the pH level of their bottled waters but our tests have shown the water is often a lot lower pH that it appears.


The Health Benefits of Alkaline Water

Most functions in the body are influenced by pH. Healthy enzyme and hormone systems, along with our blood’s ability to carry oxygen, all depend on an alkaline pH. Together, these systems impact our overall health. The body of testimonial benefits spanning the 35 years of the alkaline movement are staggering and cover an almost universal array of diseases and health conditions. Some regularly reported benefits include: increased energy and mental clarity, improved memory, clearer skin, weight loss, detoxification, improvements in cardiac conditions, stabilizing of diabetic blood sugar, better digestion, a lessening or the outright elimination of a range of inflammatory issues including arthritis, and other conditions such as allergies, asthma and on and on.

Research Backs Alkaline Diet / Lifestyle Benefits
In addition to the host of testimonials, there is also scientific (and logical common sense) evidence that an alkaline diet is good for you in a variety of ways.

Tuft’s University’s study of 400 men and women over 65 who followed an alkaline diet, revealed a few salient things. First, many of the foods included in an alkaline diet are nutrient-dense, low-calorie alternatives to traditional Standard American Diet choices. That is a benefit no matter who you talk to. Second, there is a comparatively higher potassium content in alkaline diet foods. Those who ate an alkaline diet with potassium-rich fruits and vegetables had more lean muscle mass than the control group after the conclusion of the trial.

A study from the Cleveland Clinic showed that an alkaline diet promotes eating mostly organic plant-based foods high in vitamin C, selenium, iron, and zinc; all of which support gut health and the immune system3. A third study showed that sweet red peppers, broccoli, and carrots promote healthy skin due to their high concentrations of vitamin A4. Offering a wider view of the mineral benefits, Annemarie Colbin, PhD, author of Food and Healing, states “Fruits and vegetables, all leave behind minerals such as potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium, which buffer the acids.”

Many people who live an alkaline lifestyle report anti-inflammatory benefits. A study published in the Journal of Obesity5 backs that up by concluding that when you avoid foods high in omega-6 fatty acids (as in an alkaline diet), you reduce your levels of arachidonic acid, which causes the inflammation associated with heart disease and joint pain.

Antioxidant Activity

Ionized water carries hydrogen molecules that can (as you change from dehydrated to hydrated) help neutralize free radicals in the body and block the oxidation of normal cells. Drinking alkaline water is like drinking glass after glass of anti-oxidants that cling to and help neutralize the damaging, oxidizing, free-radicals within your body.

What is ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential or Redox Potential)

Acidic DrinksORP is a measurement of water's ability to oxidize contaminants, rust is a slow example of oxidation and fire is an example of quick oxidation. Normal tap water when measured with an ORP (oxidation reduction potential) meter its redox potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Other examples of common drinks with a high positive ORP are coffee, bottled water, Gatorade with carbonated drinks and soft drinks particularly high.
Reduced ionized water (like water from a water ionizer) has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -550 mV (or less). This means one of the benefits of ionized water is that it has a large mass of antioxidants or hydrogen gas, ready to donate to electron-thieving, free radicals.

The Benefits of H2 Water (Hydrogen Water)

Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element making it easy to absorb by your body. Over 500 studies show that molecular hydrogen or H2 has a therapeutic benefit in 140 health conditions and disease models. Daily health benefits of hydrogen rich water include:

What are some other Benefits of Alkaline Water

Alkaline water helps combats acidosis and reduces the symptoms of acidosis including;

AlkaViva Ambassador

What is Ionized Water

Ionized Water is water that has undergone the process of ionisation, which simply segregates the acid water and alkaline water content naturally found in H2O. The naturally occurring charges found within magnesium and calcium ions are passed through an electrolysis chamber, and alkaline water exits through the drinking water spout, and the acidic water exits through the acidic water hose.

What is UltraWater?

Our UltraWater filters are the most comprehensively tested water ionizer filters on the market and tested at real tap flow rates (not slower rates like our competitors). While alkaline water is a great health benefit also key is the removal of contaminants and UltraWater water filters remove 99.9% of almost all contaminants.

UltraWater Filters
AlkaViva uses Independent, EPA (Government-Certified) Laboratory for all its Filter Testing. Take back your tap and alkalise today! By combining your water ionizer with AlkaViva’s UltraWater filters you get the cleanest alkaline water on demand!
Products capable of the most advanced contaminant removal while retaining the beneficial alkalizing minerals. Combine your water ionizer with AlkaViva’s UltraWater™ ionizer filters to give you give you the cleanest water! Create alkaline water on demand with removal of 99.9% removal of almost all contaminant rendered non-detectable. The media used in all our UltraWater products has been extensively tested to show stunning reductions for 171 contaminants, by a USA, independent Government approved laboratory, certified under the strictest EPA/ANSI protocols.

See the difference  UltraWater™ makes compared to other filters with comprehensive Independent Test Results


Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet
  - Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

“Alkaline water produced by a water ionizer has become the most important advancement in health care since Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin.”
— Dr. William Kelly, author, Cancer Cure.

There has been a growing interest in "alkaline diets" and living an "alkaline lifestyle" over the past decade. Part of this interest can involve drinking alkaline, ionized water from a water ionizer as a way to improve wellness, enhance performance and prolong vitality. By alkaline, ionized water, what is meant is water that has been altered in a water ionizer to typically give a pH around 9 and a negative change (-ORP). Any water above a 7 pH is alkaline and below 7 pH acidic. Both pH and ORP can be easily measured by using pH and ORP meters.

Life on earth depends on appropriate pH levels in and around living organisms and cells. Human life requires a tightly controlled pH level in the serum of about 7.4 (a slightly alkaline range of 7.35 to 7.45) to survive. The ability of the body to maintain this level can be compromised by poor diet, lack of or excessive exercise, pollutants, dehydration and stress. From available evidence, it would be prudent to consider an alkaline diet to reduce morbidity and mortality of chronic disease that are plaguing our aging population. (

Along with this interest in all things alkaline, there have also been some unsubstantiated health claims made. Such claims give rise to pseudo-sciences that undermine the significant body of peer-reviewed, published research into how altering alkaline (pH) levels can bring about health changes. Part of the issue in studying the beneficial effects of an alkaline diet is the lack of funding available for such research coupled with the complexity in trying to isolate what factors are creating change. Indeed a few studies failed to find health changes from altering diet, although some acknowledged that more research was needed to determine if there were significant benefits yet to be successfully quantified.

AlkaViva water ionizers as well as producing clean, alkaline water can also create a significant amount of diatomic hydrogen (H2) in the water. The peer-reviewed benefits from drinking H2 water are not covered in this article and are seen here.

All that been said, below are excerpts from peer-reviewed, alkaline-diet studies along with references as to where the full articles can be found, if you wish to go further. Bolded copy is from AlkaViva. We welcome feedback.

The Evolution of Diet

Estimates of the net systemic load of acid in ancestral pre-agricultural diets as compared to contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient compositions of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements. The result is that contemporary diets generate diet-induced metabolic acidosis in contemporary Homo Sapiens.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr., Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral pre-agricultural Homo sapiens,

Report compiled by the World Health Organization from studies in different regions of the world on the importance of minerals in drinking water.
Ong, Choon. Minerals from drinking-water: Bioavailability for various world populations and health implications. WHO | Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization, 17 Aug 2004.

Because of the increased incidence of obesity in our population, electrolyzed water at 2 liters/day for 2 months was given to four obese subjects. Statistical evaluation of the results of the present study suggests that electrolyzed water as used resulted in near significant weight loss and a significant loss of body fat in obese subjects.
Abraham, Guy, and Jorge Flebas. The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report. Highbeam Research. Original Internist, 01 Sep 2011. Web. 2 Jul 2013.

Bone Loss

The bone minerals that are wasted in the urine may not have complete compensation through intestinal absorption, which is thought to result in osteoporosis. An alkaline diet typically does improve the K/Na ratio and may benefit bone health, reduce muscle wasting, as well as mitigate other chronic diseases such as hypertension and strokes. It has been found increases in the alkali content of a diet, may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, Oct 2011.

Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkaline diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake.
Wynn, E, MA Krieg, JM Aeschlimann, and P Burckhardt. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism. Bone. Elsevier, 27 Oct 2008. Web. 1 Jul 2013.

Excess dietary protein with high acid renal load may decrease bone density if not buffered by ingestion of supplements or foods (water) that are alkali rich.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, 2012

This work shows that bone depletion is absolutely dependent on extracellular acidification; these cells are inactive at pH levels above about 7.3 and show maximum stimulation at a pH of about 6.9. Bone resorption is most sensitive to changes in H+ concentration at a pH of about 7.1 (which may be close to the interstitial pH in bone). In vivo, severe systemic acidosis (pH change of about -0.05 to -0.20) often results from renal disease; milder chronic acidosis (pH change of about -0.02 to -0.05) can be caused by excessive protein intake, acid feeding, prolonged exercise, ageing, airway diseases or menopause. Acidosis can also occur locally as a result of inflammation, infection, wounds, tumors or diabetic ischemia. Cell function, including that of osteoblasts, is normally impaired by acid; the unusual stimulatory effect of acid on osteoclasts may represent a primitive 'fail-safe' that evolved with terrestrial vertebrates to correct systemic acidosis by ensuring release of alkaline bone mineral when the lungs and kidneys are unable to remove sufficient H+ equivalent. The present results suggest that even subtle chronic acidosis could be sufficient to cause appreciable bone loss over time.
Arnett T., Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London,

Humans generally consume a diet that generates metabolic acids leading to a reduction in the systemic bicarbonate and a fall of pH. Chronic metabolic acidosis alters bone cell function; there is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation. As we age, we are less able to excrete metabolic acids due to the normal decline in renal function.
Bushinski DA., Nephrology Unit, Strong Memorial Hospital, New York,

Chronic metabolic acidosis is a process whereby an excess acid load is placed on the body due to excess acid generation or diminished acid removal by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Excessive meat ingestion and aging are two clinical conditions often associated with chronic metabolic acidosis. The body's homeostatic response to this pathology is very efficient. Therefore, the blood pH is frequently maintained within the "normal" range. However, these homeostatic responses engender pathologic consequences such as nephrolithiasis, bone demineralization, muscle protein breakdown and renal growth.
Alpern RJ1, Sakhaee K., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas,

Excessive dietary intake of protein with consequent increase in metabolic acid production result in compensatory mechanisms that lead to progression of kidney stones, bone disease, renal disease and a catabolic state.
Alpern, R. Trade-offs in the adaptation to acidosis, Kidney International 47: 1205-1215, 1995.

The acid load inherent in the Western diet results in mild chronic metabolic acidosis in association with a state of cortisol excess. An alkali balanced diet modulates bone resorption and the associated alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Maurer, M.; Riesen, W.; Muser, J.; Hulter, H. and Krapf, R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resportion independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans, American Journal of Physiology and Renal Physiology 284: F32-40, 2003.

Osteoclast activity is modulated by small pH changes and is a key determinant of bone resorption in mouse calvarial cultures.
Sajeda Meghji, Matthew S. Morrison, Brian Henderson, Timothy R. Arnett, pH Dependence of Bone Resorption American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol. 280 no. 1, E112-E119.

Alkalinity/ Hydration for Athletics

It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.

A significant difference in whole blood viscosity was detected in this study when assessing a high-pH, water versus an acceptable standard purified water during the recovery phase following strenuous exercise-induced dehydration.
Joseph Weidman, Ralph E. HolsworthJr., Bradley Brossman, Daniel J. Cho, John St.Cyr, Gregory Fridman, ffect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

After using an alkalizing supplement trained Nordic skiers experienced significant changes in cardiorespiratory, blood lactate, and upper body power output measures. Studies also indicate that drinking alkaline water can enhance the body’s buffering capacity and temper the acidity, thus improving performance.
Daniel P Heil, Erik A Jacobson, and Stephanie M Howe, Influence of an alkalizing supplement on markers of endurance performance using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 8. Published online 2012 Mar 20. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-8.

Supplementing with alkalizing minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium) decreases cardio-respiratory stress and blood lactate responses, while improving power output in endurance athletes. Alkaline water may work similarly.
Y. Kilkian, F. Engel. P. What, J. Master, Markers of Biological Stress,

Consumption of alkaline water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of alkaline water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults. Also, over time, the mineral content of alkalized water could help active people retain more fluid in the cardiovascular system. This might improve overall hydration status and fluid reserves.
D,. Heil, Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Montana State University.

The physiology of intense exercise that produces acidosis is far more complex than originally thought. In the transition to higher exercise intensity, proton release is even greater than lactate production which indicates acidosis is only partially related to production of "lactic acid."
Robergs, R. Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis: where do the protons come from? Sport Science 5(2), 2001.

Alkaline Water and Free Radical Damage

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be "active hydrogen". "Active diatomic hydrogen" can be produced in reduced (alkaline) water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced (alkaline) water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2), and extremely negative redox potential (-ORP) values. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species suggesting that reduced water can scavenge different types of free radicals.
Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y., Emory Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

Alkalinity and Muscles

As we age, there is a loss of muscle mass, which may predispose to falls and fractures. A three-year study looking at a diet rich in potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as a reduced acid load, resulted in preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Ceglia L. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;87(3):662–665.

Correction of acidosis may preserve muscle mass in conditions where muscle wasting is common such as diabetic ketosis, trauma, sepsis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and renal failure.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 727630.

Chronic metabolic acidosis increases net muscle protein degradation in rat muscle tissue. Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism.
Mitch WE, Medina R, Grieber S, May RC, England BK, Price SR, Bailey JL, Goldberg AL., University School of Medicine, Georgia, Metabolic acidosis stimulates muscle protein degradation,

Alkaline Diet and Growth Hormones

It has long been known that severe forms of metabolic acidosis in children, such as renal tubular acidosis, are associated with low levels of growth hormone with resultant short stature. Correction of the acidosis increases growth hormone significantly and improved growth. Improving growth hormone levels may improve quality of life, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve body composition, and even improve memory and cognition.
Wass JAH, Reddy R. Growth hormone and memory. Journal of Endocrinology. 2010;207(2):125–126.

Alkaline Minerals and Back Pain

There is some evidence that chronic low back pain improves with the supplementation of alkaline minerals. With supplementation there was a slight but significant increase in blood pH and intracellular magnesium. Ensuring that there is enough intracellular magnesium allows for the proper function of enzyme systems that improves back pain and also allows for activation of vitamin D.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity and Chemotherapy

The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents is markedly influenced by pH. Numerous agents such as epirubicin and adriamycin require an alkaline media to be more effective. Cell death correlates with acidosis and intracellular pH shifts higher (more alkaline) after chemotherapy may reflect response to chemotherapy. It has been suggested that inducing metabolic alkalosis may be useful in enhancing some treatment regimes.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity and Cancer

Diet-induced acidosis is a potential upstream and indirect trigger in a multifactorial cascade of molecular events associated with carcinogenesis. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) comprehensive global report has compiled numerous studies demonstrating associations between dietary habits and cancer risk. The findings recommend increased or regular consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, while discouraging excess consumption of sugary and energy-dense foods and drinks, red and processed meats, and salty processed foods.
Ian Forrest Robey, University of Arizona, Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer,

Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. It is notable that cancer cells maintain a high level of glucose metabolism even in the presence of oxygen, which was first documented by Warburg more than 80 years ago. This is a consistent finding across a variety of cancers, and has been recognized as a “hallmark” of cancer.
Maria de Lourdes C Ribeiro, Ariosto S. Silva, Kate M. Bailey, Nagi B. Kumar, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Gatenby, Arig Ibrahim-Hashim, and Robert J. Gillies, Buffer Therapy for Cancer,

A significant consequence of increased glucose metabolism is the production of acids, such as lactic acid, which can be an independent negative prognostic factor for cancer outcome. Prior mathematical models and empirical studies have shown that solid tumors export acid into the surrounding parenchyma. This is consistent with measurements of tumor pH in mouse models, which have shown that the extracellular pH of solid tumors is acidic. Combined, these observations have led to the generation of the “Acid Mediated Tumor Invasion” hypothesis, which proposes that fast-growing tumors export acid to surrounding stroma, and that reduced pH contributes to the tissue remodeling required for tumor invasion.
Ian F. Robey, Brenda K. Baggett, Nathaniel D. Kirkpatrick, Denise J. Roe, Julie Dosescu, Bonnie F. Sloane, Arig Ibrahim Hashim, David L. Morse, Natarajan Raghunand, Robert A. Gatenby, and Robert J. Gillies,Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases, Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 69(6): 2260–2268.

Alkalinity and Effects on Aging

Changes in renal physiology and function with aging put the elderly patient at risk for adverse effect of drug therapies due to the incidence of common problems like metabolic acidosis.
Lonergan, E. Aging and the kidney: adjusting treatment to physiologic change, Geriatrics 43: 27-30, 32-33, 1998.

Authors examined peer-reviewed literature to determine whether systemic acid-base equilibrium changes with aging in normal adults humans. Using linear regression analysis, they found that with increasing age, there is a significant increase in the steady-state blood H+ indicating a progressively worsening low-level metabolic acidosis in what may reflect, in part, the normal decline of renal function with increasing age.
Frassetto, L. and Sebastian, A. Age and systemic acid-base equilibrium: analysis of published data, Journal of Gerontology, Advanced Biological Science and Medical Science, 51: B91-99, 1996.

Dietary changes over the last two centuries have resulted in a mismatch between genetically-determined nutritional requirements in humans. Excess sodium chloride, a deficiency of potassium and excess dietary acids that are not mediated by dietary bicarbonates lead to chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis that amplifies the age-related pathophysiological consequences in humans (such as loss of bone substance, increase in urinary calcium, disturbance in nitrogen metabolism, and low levels of growth hormone).
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R.; Sellmeyer, D.; Todd, K. and Sebastian, A. Diet, evolution and aging: the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet, European Journal of Nutrition 40:5 200-213, 2001.

Otherwise healthy adults manifest a low-grade, diet-dependent metabolic acidosis, the severity of which increases with age at constant rate described by an index of endogenous acid production, apparently due in part, to the normal age-related decline of renal function.
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R. and Sebastian, A. Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline, American Journal of Physiology, 271: 1114-22, 1996.

Age-induced decline in renal functions explains, at least in part, clinically important age-related conditions including metabolic acidosis.
Krapt, R. and Jehle, A. Renal function and renal disease in the elderly, Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 130:11 398-408 2000.

Acid-base homeostasis exerts a major influence on protein function, thereby critically affecting tissue and organ performance. Deviations in body acidity can have adverse consequences and when severe, can be life-threatening.
Adrogue, H. and Madias, N. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders, New England Journal of Medicine 338: 26-34, 1998.

Decline in the ability to adjust acid-base balance is a feature of aging. Regulation of pH ultimately depends on the kidneys and lungs, however, the ability of these organs is decreased with physiological aging. Renal insufficiency and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various drugs, such as diuretics, often affect the acid-base balance in the elderly.
Nabata, T.; Morimoto, S. and Ogihara, T. Abnormalities in acid-base balance in the elderly, Nippon Rinsho 50: 2249-53, 1992.